LLM is short for Large Language Model, which is a recent innovation in AI and machine learning. This powerful new type of AI went viral in Dec 2022 with the release of ChatGPT.
For those enlightened enough to live outside the world of AI buzz and tech news cycles, ChatGPT is a chat interface that ran on an LLM called GPT-3 (now upgraded to either GPT-3.5 or GPT-4 at the time of writing this).
If you’ve used ChatGPT, it’s obvious that this is not your traditional chatbot from AOL Instant Messenger or your credit card’s customer care.
This one feels different.
When I heard the term “Large Language Model,” one of my first questions was, how is this different from a “regular” language model?
A language model is more generic than a large language model. Just like all squares are rectangles but not all rectangles are squares. All LLMs are language models, but not all language models are LLMs.
Okay, so LLMs are a special type of language model, but what makes them special?
There are 2 key properties that distinguish LLMs from other language models. One is quantitative, and the other is qualitative.
- Quantitatively, what distinguishes an LLM is the number of parameters used in the model. Current LLMs have on the order of 10–100 billion parameters .
- Qualitatively, something remarkable happens when a language model becomes “large.” It exhibits so-called emergent properties e.g. zero-shot learning . These are properties that seem to suddenly appear when a language model reaches a sufficiently large size.
The major innovation of GPT-3 (and other LLMs) is that it is capable of zero-shot learning in a wide variety of contexts . This means ChatGPT can perform a task even if it has not been explicitly trained to do it.
While this might be no big deal to us highly evolved humans, this zero-shot learning ability starkly contrasts the prior machine learning paradigm.
Previously, a model needed to be explicitly trained on the task it aimed to do in order to have good performance. This could require anywhere from 1k-1M pre-labeled training examples.
For instance, if you wanted a computer to do language translation, sentiment analysis, and identify grammatical errors. Each of these tasks would require a specialized model trained on a large set of labeled examples. Now, however, LLMs can do all these things without explicit training.
The core task used to train most state-of-the-art LLMs is word prediction. In other words, given a sequence of words, what is the probability distribution of the next word?
For example, given the sequence “Listen to your ____,” the most likely next words might be: heart, gut, body, parents, grandma, etc. This might look like the probability distribution shown below.
Interestingly, this is the same way many (non-large) language models have been trained in the past (e.g. GPT-1) . However, for some reason, when language models get beyond a certain size (say ~10B parameters), these (emergent) abilities, such as zero-shot learning, can start to pop up .
Although there is no clear answer as to why this occurs (only speculations for now), it is clear that LLMs are a powerful technology with countless potential use cases.
Now we turn to how to use this powerful technology in practice. While there are countless potential LLM use cases, here I categorize them into 3 levels ordered by required technical knowledge and computational resources. We start with the most accessible.
Level 1: Prompt Engineering
The first level of using LLMs in practice is prompt engineering, which I define as any use of an LLM out-of-the-box i.e. not changing any model parameters. While many technically-inclined individuals seem to scoff at the idea of prompt engineering, this is the most accessible way to use LLMs (both technically and economically) in practice.
There are 2 main ways to do prompt engineering: the Easy Way and the Less Easy Way.
The Easy Way: ChatGPT (or another convenient LLM UI) — The key benefit of this method is convenience. Tools like ChatGPT provide an intuitive, no-cost, and no-code way to use an LLM (it doesn’t get much easier than that).
However, convenience often comes at a cost. In this case, there are 2 key drawbacks to this approach. The first is a lack of functionality. For example, ChatGPT does not readily enable users to customize model input parameters (e.g. temperature or max response length), which are values that modulate LLM outputs. Second, interactions with the ChatGPT UI cannot be readily automated and thus applied to large-scale use cases.
While these drawbacks may be dealbreakers for some use cases, both can be ameliorated if we take prompt engineering one step further.
The Less Easy Way: Interact with LLM directly — We can overcome some of the drawbacks of ChatGPT by interacting directly with an LLM via programmatic interfaces. This could be via public APIs (e.g. OpenAI’s API) or running an LLM locally (using libraries like Transformers).
While this way of doing prompt engineering is less convenient (since it requires programming knowledge and potential API costs), it provides a customizable, flexible, and scalable way to use LLMs in practice. Future articles in this series will discuss both paid and cost-free ways to do this type of prompt engineering.
Although prompt engineering (as defined here) can handle most potential LLM applications, relying on a generic model, out-of-the-box may result in sub-optimal performance for specific use cases. For these situations, we can go to the next level of using LLMs.
Level 2: Model Fine-tuning
The second level of using an LLM is model fine-tuning, which I’ll define as taking an existing LLM and tweaking it for a particular use case by changing at least 1 (internal) model parameter i.e. weights and biases. In this category, I will also lump in here transfer learning i.e. using some part of an existing LLM to develop another model.
Fine-tuning typically consists of 2 steps. Step 1: Obtain a pre-trained LLM. Step 2: Update model parameters for a specific task given (typically 1000s of) high-quality labeled examples.
The model parameters are what define the LLM’s internal representation of the input text. Thus, by tweaking these parameters for a particular task, the internal representations become optimized for the fine-tuning task (or at least that’s the idea).
This is a powerful approach to model development because a relatively small number of examples and computational resources can produce exceptional model performance.
The downside, however, is it requires significantly more technical expertise and computational resources than prompt engineering. In a future article, I will attempt to curb this downside by reviewing fine-tuning techniques and sharing example Python code.
While prompt engineering and model fine-tuning can likely handle 99% of LLM applications, there are cases where one must go even further.
Level 3: Build your own LLM
The third and final way to use an LLM in practice is to build your own. In terms of model parameters, this is where you come up with all the model parameters from scratch.
An LLM is primarily a product of its training data. Thus, for some applications, it may be necessary to curate custom, high-quality text corpora for model training—for example, a medical research corpus for the development of a clinical application.
The biggest upside to this approach is you can fully customize the LLM for your particular use case. This is the ultimate flexibility. However, as is often the case, flexibility comes at the cost of convenience.
Since the key to LLM performance is scale, building an LLM from scratch requires tremendous computational resources and technical expertise. In other words, this isn’t going to be a solo weekend project but rather a full team working for months, if not years, with a 7–8F budget.
Nevertheless, in a future article in this series, we will explore popular techniques for developing LLMs from scratch.
While there is more than enough hype about LLMs these days, they are a powerful innovation in the field of AI. Here I provided a primer on what LLMs are and framed how they can be used in practice. The next article in this series will give a beginner’s guide to OpenAI’s Python API to help jumpstart your next LLM use case.